What is Hydrochlorothiazide?
Hydrochlorothiazide is a diuretic (diuretic) that is used in various diseases of the kidneys, lungs, liver and heart to reduce swelling which appeared as a result of fluid retention and salts in the body.
Diuretic effect of Hydrochlorothiazide is in its ability to excrete urine together with potassium ions, bicarbonate and magnesium.
The use of this drug reduces the reabsorption (reverse of absorption) of fluid, ions of chlorine and sodium in the distal tubule. According to the instructions to the Gidrohlortiazid the drug acts on the distal tubules, reducing the excretion of calcium ions and preventing the formation of calcium kidney stones.
The use of medication increases concentration ability of the kidneys, inhibits the susceptibility of blood vessels to the action of mediators involved in the transmission of nerve impulses. Pills of Hydrochlorothiazide is also used in the treatment of individuals who receive treatment with hormonal agents (estrogens, corticosteroids).
Gidrohlortiazid characterized by hypotensive effect, and reduces excessive formation of urine in persons with diabetes insipidus. In addition, gidrohlortiazid in some cases is able to reduce intraocular pressure.
After oral administration gidrohlortiazid well absorbed in the intestine and excreted by the kidneys almost unchanged.
The maximum efficacy of Hydrochlorothiazide is observed after 4 hours after administration and over the next 12 hours. It is important to note that the drug is able to penetrate through the placenta and breast milk.
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In the treatment Gidrohlortiazidom need to avoid prolonged sun exposure, as the drug causes increased skin sensitivity to UV radiation.
This medicine may be appointed only after a thorough analysis of the balance of risks and benefits to patients suffering from disorders of fat metabolism, increased levels of triglycerides and cholesterol in plasma and with a low content of sodium in the body.
In case of overdose Gidrohlortiazidom patients can have such symptoms:
- nausea, weakness;
- expressed violations vodno-elektrolitnogo balance;
- exacerbation of gout.
There is no specific antidote. In case of overdose with this medicine the doctor prescribes symptomatic treatment and seeks to maintain water and electrolyte balance in the body.
In case of hypokalemia recommended the use of potassium chloride or asparkam. Sometimes the formation of giperhloremiceski alkalosis (changes in electrolyte metabolism). Then the patient is administered 0.9% saline (sodium chloride). In the case of poorly marked symptoms of gout used allopurinol.
When taking large doses of the drug, the patient must, must be in a medical facility under the supervision of specialists.